European Literature on the Bulsa before 1957


Introductory Note: After publishing bibliographical notes on articles and books written by Bulsa authors (BULUK no 1) and a list of books and bookles edited by GILLBT (BULUK no 2), below you will find books, in which the Bulsa and their culture are mentioned. No monography on the Bulsa exists before independence day (1957) and often we can find only short hints. Of greater importance among the very early publications are Clarke (1848) and Koelle (1854) as the first sources with Buli wordlists, Cardinall (1920), Tauxier (1912) and Rattray (1932).

Amherst, H.W.

1947 Diary (manuscript). [p.3, April 16th, 1947: short note on Sandema and Wiaga].

Armitage, C.H.

1924  The Tribal Markings and Marks of Adornment of the Natives of the Northern Territories of the Gold Coast, London, Royal Anthrop. Institute [pp. 7, 11, 22-23 short notes on the "Kanjarga"].

Binger, L.G.

1892 Du Niger au Golfe de Guinée, 2 vols., Paris. [vol. II, p. 36: facial scarifications of the "Tiansi ou Boulsi"].

Blair, Harold Arthur

[1932] Language Groups; manuscript in the Rhodes-House Library, Oxford

[p.1-4 classification of Northern Ghanaian languages; Builsa grouped among the early Gur invaders].

[1936-37] A Trek in the Northern Territories of the Gold Coast; manuscript in the Rhodes- House Library, Oxford [23 pages; Blair's visit to Sandema on January 8, 1937, notes on the "Zaberimi" raids and on Bulsa archery].

Cardinall, A.W.

1920 The Natives of the Northern Territories of the Gold Coast. Their Customs, Religion and Folklore, London [many scattered notes on the ethnography of the Bulsa; p. 116: a short word list of animal names in Buli].

1923 Notes on Fire and Fire-making, Man 23,85, 139-40 [Bulsa oil-lamps; a sacred fire in Gbedema].

1927 In Ashanti and Beyond, London [several scattered noten on the ethnography and the country of the Bulsa].

1932 The Gold Coast, Census Office, Accra.

Champagné, P. Emery

1944 Traits de la vie paienne dans la Préfecture Apostolique de Navrongo (N.T. of Gold Coast Colony], Annali Lateranensi, 8, 147-154 [chapters on "Consécration des enfants aux manes des ancêtres" and "Un enterrement"].

Clarke, John

1848 Specimens of Dialects. Short Vocabularies of Languages and Notes of Countries and Customs of Africa, Berwick-upon-Tweed [first written source about Buli words?].

Delafosse, Maurice

1904 Vocabulaires comparatifs de plus de 60 langues ou dialectes parlés à la Côte d'Ivoire et dans les Regions limitrophes..., Paris.

1912 Haut-Sénégal-Niger (Soudan Français), 2 vols. Paris. [vol. I, p. 130: "Tiansé [Kian]" and "Boulsé [Boua]"; p. 155: population statistics on the "Boua"; vol. II, p. 421: battle of Lt. Chanoine with Babatu at "Gandiaga" [Kanjaga] on 14 March, 1897].

Eyre-Smith, St. J.

1933 A Brief Review of the History and Social Organization of the People of the Northern Territories of the Gold Coast, Govt. Printer, Accra. [45 pages].

Hughes, Mark H.

1947 Depopulation in the Sisili Area, Navrongo; manuscript in the Rhodes-House Library, Oxford [references to "Sinyensi" and "Vare"].

1948 Vare. A Study in Rural Decay; manuscript in the Rhodes-House Library, Oxford [describes the situation of the Bulsa village of Vare; now distinct].

Junner, N.R.

1936 Report on the Geological Survey Department for the Financial Year 1935-36. Ghana Geological Survey Reports. Gold Coast, Accra.

Koelle, Sigismund Wilhelm

1854 Polyglotta Africana, London (reprint Graz 1963) [interviews with former Bulsa slaves].

Manoukian, Madeline

1951 Tribes of the Northern Territories of the Gold Coast, Ethnographic Survey of Africa, ed. D. Forde, Western Africa, part V, London.[p. 2 Builsa under the heading "Tribal Grouping and Distribution", p. 7 "Languages", based on Rattray]

Migeod, F.W.H.,

1911 The Languages of West Africa, vol. I, London [contains a chapter on "Kanjarga"].

Morris, A.

1902 (Report on the late expedition into the Tiansi country, Gambaga, April 26, 1902), Enclosure in a letter of Governor Major Nathan to Mr. Chamberlain (Accra, May 31, 1902), Public Record Office, London, Co 879, 78, 05939, no. 25352 (Enclosure: no. G/105/N.T./02) [Lieutenant-Colonel A. Morris's punitive expedition to Sandema].

Packham, E.S.

1950 Notes on the Development of the Native Authorities in the Northern Territories of the Gold Coast, Journal of African Administration, II, 2, 26-30 [text refers also to the administration of the Bulsa area, though the Bulsa are mentioned only once].

Perrault, P.

1954 History of the Tribes of the Northern Territories of the Gold Coast, St. John Bosco's Press, Navrongo [typescript, 100 pages, one short chapter about the "Builsa"].

Rattray, R.S.

1932 The Tribes of the Ashanti Hinterland, 2 vols., Oxford [vol. I, chapters I-IV on languages, among them "Bulea"; extensive word-list on pp. 64-111; vol. II, chapter XLII on "The Builsa", p. 398-403].

Rodriques, Nina

1935 Os Africanos no Brasil, 2a ediçao, Sao Paulo [p. 217-221 Buli word-list, cf. Zwernemann 1968b]

Rouch, Jean

1956 Migrations au Ghana, Journal de la Société des Africanistes, 26, 1/2, 33-196.

Tauxier, Louis

1912 Le noir du Soudan - Pays Mossi et Gourounsi, Paris [chapter II, p. 275-294, ethnographic notes on "Les Bouras"; see also appendices no. 7-11 on the "Bouras"].

1924 Nouvelles notes sur le Mossi et le Gourounsi, Paris [pp. 39, 41, 51 mention "les Tiansi ou Boulsi" or "Kiansi", as the "Gourounsi du Sud"; p. 94-142 extensive word-list, "Vocabulaire Kiansi", 550 words, collected from a woman of "Pisi" (?), p. 143f. Appendix X "Notices sur les Kiansi" where reference is made to Binger and Delafosse)

de Tressan, Lavergne

1953 Inventaire linguistique de l'Afrique occidentale française et du Togo, Mém. IFAN, 30.

White Fathers, Roman Catholic Mission in Wiaga

n.d. Buli Grammar.